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In addition, ⟨y⟩ and ⟨ÿ⟩ are occasionally used instead of Dutch ⟨IJ⟩ and ⟨ij⟩, albeit very rarely. The letter ⟨y⟩ is also used in many geographical names, e.g.
Bayern Bavaria, Ägypten Egypt, Libyen Libya, Paraguay, Syrien Syria, Uruguay, Zypern Cyprus (but: Jemen Yemen, Jugoslawien Yugoslavia).
In Portuguese, ⟨y⟩ (called ípsilon in Brazil, both ípsilon or i grego in Portugal) was, together with ⟨k⟩ and ⟨w⟩, recently re-introduced as the 25th letter, and 19th consonant, of the Portuguese alphabet, in consequence of the Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990.
Especially in German names, the pronunciations occur as well – for instance in the name Meyer, where it serves as a variant of ⟨i⟩, cf. In German the y is preserved in the plural form of some loanwords such as Babys babies and Partys parties, celebrations.
A ⟨y⟩ that derives from the ⟨ij⟩ ligature occurs in the Afrikaans language, a descendant of Dutch, and in Alemannic German names.
But, by the time of Middle English, was also lost in later Icelandic and Faroese, making the distinction purely orthographic and historical, but not in the mainland Scandinavian languages, where the distinction is retained.
It may be observed that a similar merger of happened in Greek around the beginning of the 2nd millennium, making the distinction between iota (Ι, ι) and upsilon (Υ, υ) purely a matter of historical spelling there as well.